Android is a popular, Linux-based mobile phone operating system developed by Google. The Android operating system (OS) powers phones, watches, and even car stereos. The operating system have developed a lot in last 15 years starting from black and white phones to recent smart phones or mini computers. One of the most widely used mobile OS these days is android. The android is software that was founded in Palo Alto of California in 2003. Its four founders were Rich Miner, Nick Sears, Chris White and Andy Rubin.The Android operating system was first developed by Android, Inc., a software company located in Silicon Valley before Google acquired it in 2005. Rubin revealed in a 2013 speech in Tokyo that Android OS was originally meant to improve the operating systems of digital cameras. Android OS uses touch inputs to manipulate on the screen objects , And it uses the virtual keyboard , It was designed for touch screen input , it has been used by in game equipments , the cameras , PC’s and other electronic devices .
The hardware that supports android software is based on ARM architecture platform. The android is an open source operating system means that it’s free and any one can use it. The android development supports with the full java programming language. Even other packages that are API and JSE are not supported. The first version 1.0 of android development kit (SDK) was released in 2008.
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Android was the Open Handset Alliance (OHA), a coalition of hardware, software and telecommunications companies. More than 30 companies were involved in the OHA, including Qualcomm, Broadcom, HTC, Intel, Samsung, Motorola, Sprint, Texas Instruments and Japanese wireless carriers KDDI and NTT DoCoMo. Android runs on both of the most widely deployed cellular standards, GSM/HSDPA and CDMA/EV-DO. Android will also support:
- 3G communication protocols, like EV-DO and HSDPA
- SMS messaging
- video/still digital cameras
- accelerated 3D graphics
The versions released are cupcake (v1.5), Donut (v1.6), Eclair (v2.0) in 2009. Froyo (v2.3), Gingerbread (v2.4) in 2010. Honeycomb (v3.0), Ice cream sandwich (4.0) in 2011, JellyBean (4.1 to 4.3) in 2012 and KitKat (4.4) in 2013. Lollipop (5.0) in 2014.Google’s latest OS is called 8.0 Oreo. Oreo’s notable features include a picture-in-picture mode, enabling users to view two apps at the same time. Google said battery life on Android smartphones should increase with Oreo, as the software will cut down on app activity in the background. Major Android updates usually come out between July and September and the Pixel/Nexus devices are usually the first to receive them.
Anyone can download the SDK (software development kit) and write applications for Android phones and start developing for the Google Play store. Developers who sell apps on the Google Play market are charged about 30% of their sales price in fees that go to maintain the Google Play market. Some devices do not include support for Google Play and may use an alternative market. Kindles use Amazon’s own app market, which means Amazon makes the money off of any app sales.
The Android OS is based on Linux and it is pretty similar to Linux. The following figure illustrates the Android architecture. Software stack above the hardware that is provided by the OEMs. Topmost layer is the applications.
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Advantages of Android Operating System
Supports 2D, 3D graphics
It supports various platforms like 2D and 3D. Earlier we used to watch movies and play games in almost in 2D, but nowadays various applications are using 3D format. To provide different graphics in videos, games OS should support 3D format. Android supports 2D And 3D format to provide a better advantage in videos and in games.
Supports Multiple Languages
Android supports different languages. We can say all famous languages about more than 100. By using this feature it is easy to adopt to different languages. Earlier in the feature phones English is to be the only language in the mobile devices.
The Java supporting feature enables developers to enhance more features. As it supports Java, operating can be developed.
Faster Web Browser
As it enabled with web browser we surf web easily without complexity just like in a computer. It easily loads multimedia so that it makes web browsing faster.
It Supports MP4, 3GP, MPEG4, MIDI
It supports different types of formats. There is no need to convert from one format to another, as it enabled with different formats of audio and video styles.
Additional Hardware Support
Any hardware can be easily connected with the Android based devices easily. We can make a device to connect internally to get more features.
Faster data connection enables to do video call. We can take advantage of bandwidth and new generation networks using Android.
Open Source Framework
It makes users to make their own applications and to make changes required for themselves. Andriod more powerful and useful by developing themselves.we can use it easily and without cost in the equipments.
Updated User Interface Design
Interfacing that means human to machine integration made to update in android. Touchscreen made very useful change in the mobile use. It enables zooming and tapping features which perform very effectively in the Android operating system.
Disadvantages of Android Operating System
Need internet connection
Android requires an active internet connection. At least there should be a GPRS internet connection in your area, so that the device is ready to go online according to your need.
Android more wasteful than any other operating system, because this operating system is a lot of “process” in the background that lead to the battery quickly drains.
Many applications contain virus
The virus inserted android applications including Counter Strike Ground Force, Puzzle Sexy Girls, Sexy Girls Photo Game, etc. Android Application contain virus also present in the Android Market.