Artificial intelligence (AI), the ability of a digital computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with intelligent beings. The term is frequently applied to the project of developing systems endowed with the intellectual processes characteristic of humans, such as the ability to reason, discover meaning, generalize, or learn from past experience. Some of the activities computers with artificial intelligence are designed for include:
- Speech recognition
- Problem solving
AI was coined by John McCarthy, an American computer scientist, in 1956 at The Dartmouth Conference where the discipline was born. Today, it is an umbrella term that encompasses everything from robotic process automation to actual robotics. AI is accomplished by studying how human brain thinks, and how humans learn, decide, and work while trying to solve a problem, and then using the outcomes of this study as a basis of developing intelligent software and systems.
Type of Artificial Intelligence
The most basic types of AI systems are purely reactive, and have the ability neither to form memories nor to use past experiences to inform current decisions. Deep Blue, IBM’s chess-playing supercomputer, which beat international grandmaster Garry Kasparov in the late 1990s, is the perfect example of this type of machine. It is a machine built for a singular purpose or a specialized duty. It cannot adjust its decision-making and doesn’t take outside factors into effect in carrying out its purpose.
Limited memory is an artificial intelligence that allows machines to look at past information and apply it to current situations. For example, they observe other cars’ speed and direction. That can’t be done in a just one moment, but rather requires identifying specific objects and monitoring them over time. These observations are added to the self-driving cars’ preprogrammed representations of the world, which also include lane markings, traffic lights and other important elements, like curves in the road. They’re included when the car decides when to change lanes, to avoid cutting off another driver or being hit by a nearby car.
Theory of mind
In psychology, this is called “theory of mind” – the understanding that people, creatures and objects in the world can have thoughts and emotions that affect their own behavior.This is crucial to how we humans formed societies, because they allowed us to have social interactions. Without understanding each other’s motives and intentions, and without taking into account what somebody else knows either about me or the environment, working together is at best difficult, at worst impossible. If AI systems are indeed ever to walk among us, they’ll have to be able to understand that each of us has thoughts and feelings and expectations for how we’ll be treated.
The final step of AI development is to build systems that can form representations about themselves. Ultimately, we AI researchers will have to not only understand consciousness, but build machines that have it. Conscious beings are aware of themselves, know about their internal states, and are able to predict feelings of others. we should focus our efforts toward understanding memory, learning and the ability to base decisions on past experiences. This is an important step to understand human intelligence on its own.
Applications of Artificial Intelligence
In today’s digital world, reading blogs and articles has become a common practice for most of us but hardly do we realize that some of them are actually written by machines. Although it can’t be used for writing in-depth articles but the simple reports that don’t require much analysis can be easily prepared by AI.Companies like AP and Yahoo! are using AI to prepare simple reports related to sports and elections that would take a lot of time if done manually. Gaming
AI plays crucial role in strategic games such as chess, poker, tic-tac-toe, etc., where machine can think of large number of possible positions based on heuristic knowledge.
Use of Artificial Intelligence is quite popular in the entertainment industry. Whether it’s the video games or music apps, we all are well aware of the concept. Similarly, for music and movies, the users are recommended to watch or listen to certain creations based on the decisions made in the past.
Robots are able to perform the tasks given by a human. They have sensors to detect physical data from the real world such as light, heat, temperature, movement, sound, bump, and pressure. They have efficient processors, multiple sensors and huge memory, to exhibit intelligence.
Healthcare System Analysis
In the Netherlands, 97% of healthcare invoices are digital. A Dutch company uses AI to sift through the data to highlight mistakes in treatments, workflow inefficiencies, and helps area healthcare systems avoid unnecessary patient hospitalizations.These are just a sample of the solutions AI is offering the healthcare industry. As innovation pushes the capabilities of automation and digital workforces, from providers like Novatio, more solutions to save time, lower costs, and increase accuracy will be possible.
Banking & Finance
Owing to the increase in the amount of financial data, a lot of financial services have resorted to Artificial Intelligence. Robots are much quicker in analyzing market data to forecast change in stock trends and manage finances as compared to the human counterparts. They can even use algorithms to offer suggestions to the clients involving simple problems.Similarly, banks are using AI to keep a track of the customer base, addressing their needs, suggesting them about different schemes and what not. Often when there is a suspicious transaction from the users’ account, they immediately get a mail to confirm that it’s not an outsider who is carrying out that particular transaction.
Advantages of Artificial Intelligence
Artificial intelligence helps us in reducing the error and the chance of reaching accuracy with a greater degree of precision is a possibility. It is applied in various studies such as exploration of space. They are created and acclimatized in such a way that they cannot be modified or get disfigured or breakdown in the hostile environment.
Depending on the level and type of intelligence these machines receive in the future, it will obviously have an effect on the type of work they can do, and how well they can do it (they can become more efficient). As the level of AI increases so will their competency to deal with difficult, complex even dangerous tasks that are currently done by humans, a form of applied artificial intelligence.
Computed methods for automated reasoning, learning and perception have become a common phenomenon in our everyday lives. We have our lady Siri or Cortana to help us out.We are also hitting the road for long drives and trips with the help of GPS. Smartphone in an apt and every day is an example of the how we use artificial intelligence.
Act as aids
They can act as 24/7 aids to children with disabilities or the elderly, they could even act as a source for learning and teaching. They could even be part of security alerting you to possible fires that you are in threat of, or fending off crime.
In the medical field also, we will find the wide application of AI. Doctors assess the patients and their health risks with the help of artificial machine intelligence. It educates them about the side effects of various medicines. Medical professionals are often trained with the artificial surgery simulators. It finds a huge application in detecting and monitoring neurological disorders as it can simulate the brain functions.
Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence
Creation of artificial intelligence requires huge costs as they are very complex machines. Their repair and maintenance require huge costs.
Replacement of people with AI technologies can lead to large scale unemployment, which is an undesirable phenomenon. Artificial intelligence will make people lose their creative power and become lazy.
Misuse – there is no doubt that this level of technology in the wrong hands can cause mass destruction, where robot armies could be formed, or they could perhaps malfunction or be corrupted which then we could be facing a similar scene to that of terminator ( hey, you never know).
No Replicating Humans
Intelligence is believed to be a gift of nature. An ethical argument continues, whether human intelligence is to be replicated or not.Machines do not have any emotions and moral values. They perform what is programmed and cannot make the judgment of right or wrong. Even cannot take decisions if they encounter a situation unfamiliar to them. They either perform incorrectly or breakdown in such situations.
Artificial Intelligence Market
The developments of more human-like robots and increase in their deployment rate in the developing regions have had a substantial effect on the overall artificial intelligence (AI) market.Some of the key manufacturers profiled in the report include Google Inc., IBM Corp., Microsoft Corporation, IPsoft, Rocket Fuel Inc., Qlik Technologies Inc., MicroStrategy, Inc., Brighterion, Inc., 24/7 Customer, Inc., and Next IT Corp. The global artificial intelligence market size was valued at USD 641.9 million in 2016 on the basis of its direct revenue sources and at USD 5,970.0 million in 2016 on the basis on enabled revenue and AI based gross value addition (GVA) prognoses. While countries such as U.S., China, Russia and South Korea have been investing big bucks in developing their AI technologies and policy strategies, India too has been picking up the pace in advancing its technologies. The main push towards artificial intelligence in India is coming from companies in the $143 billion outsourcing industry. According to a recent survey, there is a requirement for nearly 4,000 machine learning and AI programmers in Bengaluru alone. Modi’s ‘Make in India’ campaign, which was accepted globally with much fanfare, ushered in a manufacturing revolution of its own.