Industries and organizations have been using various kind of sensors for a long time but the invent of The internet of things has taken role of sensors and evolutions of sensors to a completely different level. IoT platforms function and deliver valorous kind of intelligence and data using a variety of sensors. They serve to collect data, pushing it and sharing it with a whole network of connected devices. All this collected data makes it possible for devices to autonomously function, and the whole ecosystem is becoming “smarter” every day. By combining a set of sensors and a communication network, devices share information with one another and are improving their effectiveness and functionality. IoT devices are dependent on sensors to sense what is going on in the world and then the data is processed to continue the work. These sensors are most important part of devices and hence used extensively in IoT setup. We will see IoT sensors which are used for optical, ambient light, temperature, pressure, Inertia, humidity, proximity, gesture, touch and fingerprint sensing applications. These sensors are based on MEMS technology. MEMS is the short form of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems.
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It is used to control performance of the IoT device at varied temperatures. One example of temperature sensor is the ADT7320. It is digital temperature sensor with range from -40 degreeC to +150 degreeC. It is interfaced directly with microcontroller in a IoT device. Used in simple thermostat devices to highly sensitive semiconductors which are capable enough to control intricate procedures.
Similar to temperature sensor it is also used to control performance of the device. HTU21D from Measurement Specialties is digital humidity sensor. The NPA-700 series of humidity sensor from GE sensing provides digital output data using the industry-standard I2C protocol. Si70xx series from Silicon Laboratories Inc. is also used as humidity and temperature sensors.
Proximity sensors are the best to detect motion. They are a common component in applications involving security, safety, or efficiency. These sensors are used to avoid obstacles in navigating to a crowded place or any complex route as it can be the best possible sensor for map building and guiding. Proximity sensors utilize electromagnetic radiation or radar to conclude motion or habitation.
Proximity sensors have best use in retail industry. The retailers use proximity sensors to connect with the customers once they are in the vicinity of their premises by sending them some offers on their mobile phones. They can be used in parking systems, museums, airports.
Pressure sensors are used for measuring pressure of gas or liquid by converting the physical power into an electrical signal. They are also good at measuring other variables such as speed and altitude or such elements in some way. Barometers and pressure gauges are the most popular pressure sensors used for IoT ecosystem.Pressure sensors are ultimate solution for IoT as they can be used in various areas such as touch screen devices, bio medical instrumentation, devices used in automotive and manufacturing industry.
Water quality sensor
Water quality sensors are used to detect the water quality and Ion monitoring primarily in water distribution systems.Water is practically used everywhere. These sensors play an important role as they monitor the quality of water for different purposes.
List of most common kind of water sensors in use.
Total organic carbon Sensor: TOC sensor is used to measure organic element in water.
Turbidity Sensor: Turbidity sensors measure suspended solids in water, typically it is used in river and stream gaging, wastewater and effluent measurement.
pH Sensor: It is used to measure the pH level in the dissolved water, which indicates how acidic or basic (alkaline) it is.
Chemical sensors are applied in a number of different industries. Their goal is to indicate changes in liquid or air chemical changes. Main use cases of chemical sensors can be found in Industrial environmental monitoring and process control, intentionally or accidentally released harmful chemical detection, explosive and radioactive detection, recycling processes on Space Station, pharma industries and laboratory
Fiber optic sensing technology is used to detect electromagnetic energies like light, electricity, or such elemental particles. They can emit, receive, and convert light energy into electrical signal. The fiber optic sensor IoT interface is connected to internet and cloud platform which collects information for monitoring various parameters. These optical sensors have great use in digital cameras which act as one of the major physical devices of an IoT ecosystem.Great sensors for energy, health care, aerospace, chemicals, environment IoT platforms. Optical sensors can be ideal for environments such as oil refineries, grain bins, mining operations, pharmaceutical manufacture, and chemical processing due to its no-risk components.
Gas sensors are similar to the chemical ones, but are specifically used to monitor changes of the air quality and detect the presence of various gases. Hazardous gas monitoring in coal mines, Oil & Gas industries, chemical Laboratory research, Manufacturing – paints, plastics, rubber, pharmaceutical & petrochemical
Level sensors detect the level of liquids and other fluids including slurries, granular materials and powders that exhibit an upper surface. Level sensors can be used for smart waste management and recycling purposes. According to Senix, other applications include measuring tank levels; diesel fuel gauging; liquid assets inventory; high or low level alarms; and irrigation control.
Accelerometer is a transducer that is used to measure the physical or measurable acceleration experienced by an object due to inertial forces and converts the mechanical motion into an electrical output. It is defined as rate of change of velocity with respect to time. They are widely used in cellular & media devices, vibration measurement, Automotive control and detection, free fall detection, aircraft and aviation industries, movement detection, sports academy/athletes behavior monitoring, consumer electronics, industrial & construction sites
Infrared vision has several applications. It can visualize heat leaks in houses, help doctors monitor blood flow, identify environmental chemicals in the environment and can be integrated with wearable electronics.
Image sensors is instruments which is used to convert optical images into electronic signals for display or storage files electronically
The major use of image sensor in Digital camera & modules, medical imaging and night vision equipment, thermal imaging devices, radar, sonar, media house, Biometric & IRIS devices.
Motion detection sensors
A motion detector is an electronic device which is used to detect the physical movement(motion) in a given area and it transforms motion into an electric signal ; motion of any object or motion of human beings
A sensor or device which is used to measure the angular rate or angular velocity is known as Gyro sensors, Angular velocity is simply defined as a measurement of speed of rotation around an axis. It’s is a device used primarily for navigation and measurement of angular and rotational velocity in 3-axis directions.The most important application is monitoring the orientation of an object. Their main applications are in Car navigation systems, Game controllers, Cellular & camera devices, consumer electronics, Robotics control, Drone & RC control helicopter or UAV control, Vehicle control/ADAS.
Humidity is defined as the amount of water vapour in an atmosphere of air or other gases. The most commonly used terms are “Relative Humidity (RH). These sensors usually follow the use of temperature sensors, as many manufacturing processes require perfect working conditions. Through measuring humidity, you can ensure that the whole process runs smoothly, and when there is any sudden change, action can be taken immediately.
Classification of measurement errors
A good sensor obeys the following rules
- it is sensitive to the measured property
- it is insensitive to any other property likely to be encountered in its application, and
- it does not influence the measured property.
Most sensors have a linear transfer function. The sensitivity is then defined as the ratio between the output signal and measured property. For example, if a sensor measures temperature and has a voltage output, the sensitivity is a constant with the units [V/K]. The sensitivity is the slope of the transfer function. Converting the sensor’s electrical output (for example V) to the measured units (for example K) requires dividing the electrical output by the slope (or multiplying by its reciprocal).
IoT Sensors Market
The IoT sensors market is expected to reach USD 38.41 Billion by 2022, growing at a CAGR of 42.08% between 2016 and 2022. The major factors driving the growth of the IoT sensors market include development of cheaper, smarter, and smaller sensors, growing market for smart devices and wearables, need for real-time computing of applications, increase in demand for IoT sensors in various applications, supportive government initiatives, deployment of IPv6, and role of sensor fusion concept in IoT sensors market. According to the research report, the consumer IoT vertical has been segmented into home automation, smart city, and wearable electronics. Home automation includes consumer devices (smart TVs, home theater projectors, next-gen game console, and set-top boxes) and consumer appliances (washing machine, refrigerator, oven, dishwasher, and robot vacuum cleaner). Smart appliances, also known as intelligent appliances, have the ability to measure and control their energy usage and communicate the same with homeowners and utilities departments. Additionally, the major factors driving the wearable devices market for IoT sensors include the growing popularity of IoT and the increasing adoption of smart watches and activity trackers in the consumer markets. Isolation of the sensor market opportunity in IOT, separate from network and analytic applications, which should provide unique and valuable insight. Insight into how new technology shaped by new requirements for IOT applications will create new product categories or bring new life through adaptations to existing products. A look at factors driving the market such as lower power and longer battery life requirements, improved networking capability though embedded antennas and the ability to process or store short bursts or long streams of real time data. There is also a shift in the major contributors to the overall sensor market. While in 2015 the electronics industry contributed over 60 percent of the overall sensor market. Sensor Market by Region North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, The Rest of the World. Sensor companies profiled in this market include Sony Corporation, STMicroelectronics, Analog Devices, Inc., ABB Ltd, Texas Instruments, Robert Bosch Gmbh, and Infineon Technologies AG are among the major sensor suppliers.